Population prevalence of high dose paracetamol in dispensed paracetamol/opioid prescription combinations: an observational study

Authors: 
Roderick Clark, Judith E Fisher, Ingrid S Sketris, Grace M Johnston
Research Summary: 

Background
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0 g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations.

Methods
The Nova Scotia Prescription Monitoring Program (NSPMP) in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia is a legislated organization that collects dispensing information on all out-of-hospital prescription controlled drugs dispensed for all Nova Scotia residents. The NSPMP provided data to track all paracetamol/opioids redeemed by adults in Nova Scotia, from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2010. Trends in the number of adults dispensed these prescriptions and the numbers of prescriptions and tablets dispensed over this period were determined. The numbers and proportions of adults who filled prescriptions exceeding 4.0g/day and 3.25g/day were determined for the one-year period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Data were stratified by sex and age (<65 versus 65+).

Results
Both the number of prescriptions filled and the number of tablets dispensed increased over the study period, although the proportion of the adult population who filled at least one paracetamol/opioid prescription was lower in each successive one-year period. From July 2009 to June 2010, one in 12 adults (n=59,197) filled prescriptions for over 13 million paracetamol/opioid tablets. Six percent (n=3,786) filled prescriptions that exceeded 4.0 g/day and 18% (n=11,008) exceeded 3.25 g/day at least once. These findings exclude non-prescription paracetamol and paracetamol-only prescribed medications.

Conclusions
A substantial number of individuals who redeem prescriptions for paracetamol/opioid combinations may be at risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity. Healthcare professionals must be vigilant when prescribing and dispensing these medications in order to reduce the associated risks.

BMC Clinical Pharmacology. 2012;12(11). Published online: 18 June 2012
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-12-11